ESMO 2017: Day 2 Recap

IMG_3948The second day of ESMO included the oral genitourinary (GU) oncology session that focused on renal cell (kidney) and urothelial (bladder) carcinoma.

Several years ago, the SWITCH study evaluated the sequence of sunitinib and sorafenib showing similar overall progression free survival and overall survival regardless of the order by which each drug was utilized. At ESMO 2017, results of the SWITCH-II trial were presented. This study tested the sequence of pazopanib and sorafenib in patients with advanced RCC of any histology (i.e. clear cell or non-clear cell).  The study sought to enroll 544 patients, but stopped after 377 patients due to slow accrual. Only half of the patients remained on study and switched to their assigned drug after tumor growth on drug #1. Overall, while the study didn’t complete planned accrual, there was a trend for improved progression-free and overall survival for the pazopanib → sorafenib sequence.

Historically when most patients were treated with cytokines (IL-2 and interferon), two randomized trials by U.S. and European cooperative groups showed that in the setting of metastatic kidney disease, patients live longer by first removing the kidney mass and then treating with interferon rather than treating with interferon without removal of the kidney. Since the introduction of new therapies in late 2005 which have higher rates of tumor shrinkage and longer lifespans for patients, it is unknown if patients should still have their kidney tumor removed prior to drug therapy.

IMG_3954In the EORTC 30073 SURTIME trial, European investigators decided to try to assess whether tumors remained under control longer and patients lived longer if surgery was performed first or if patients initiated sunitinib for 3 cycles prior to cytoreductive nephrectomy. Because enrollment was slow, the study design was changed to assess the percent of patients that were free of tumor progression at 28 weeks. Ninety-nine patients were randomized to immediate versus delayed surgery, most with large kidney tumors and intermediate-risk cancer. Overall there was no difference in the percent with cancer progression at 28 weeks with either approach.  With the caveat of a small study, there were trends for longer survival and less surgical complications in those with delayed surgery. While the amended study is not able to prove that delayed surgery is the better approach, it gives comfort for those physicians/patients that the choice to initiate medical therapy and then re-evaluate for surgery is acceptable. We await the results of the larger CARMENA study that is testing surgery followed by drug versus drug alone (with no surgery) to see if removal of the primary kidney tumor is necessary.

Additionally, two early-phase studies of novel drug combinations of immunotherapy + targeted therapy were presented. In a phase I study led by the NCI, the safety of the combinations of cabozantinib/nivolumab and cabozantinib/nivolumab/ipilimumab were tested in patients with a number of different treatment-refractory tumor types, especially urothelial and other types of bladder cancers. Overall, both combinations were deemed to be safe and are moving forward in a phase III trial. However, many toxicities did occur and most patients needed to reduce the dose of at least one drug so these combinations should only be used in a clinical trial setting.

IMG_3958The phase II portion of a phase I/II study testing the combination of lenvatinib + pembrolizumab. The initial (phase 1) portion of the study presented at ESMO 2016 determined the safe dose in patients with different types of tumors (mostly RCC). This year, new results were presented with 22 additional patients added to the 8 previously treated on the phase I portion. Overall, there was an impressive tumor response rate of 63%, with 83% significant tumor shrinkage in those patients treated in the 1st line setting. This combination is also being tested in a phase III study for patients with advanced RCC which will soon be opening at Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian.

Missed our Day 1 Recap of ESMO 2017? Check it out here.

ESMO 2017: Day 1 Recap

ESMO LOGOThe 2017 European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) annual meeting has officially kicked off and our team has joined approximately 25,000 cancer researchers from around the world to present and discuss the latest cancer research.

Welcome to ESMO 2017_SignWe’ve outlined some key highlights from the first day of the conference below.

For men with newly diagnosed “hormone sensitive” high risk / advanced prostate cancer, several recent studies have changed the standard of care. Data from the CHAARTED, STAMPEDE, and LATITUDE studies that investigated the addition of docetaxel or abiraterone and low dose prednisone to standard androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for men with advanced prostate cancer has led to significantly longer and better lives. Updates to this data were presented at ESMO 2017.

The STAMPEDE study included an overlapping period where some men were randomized to ADT + docetaxel chemotherapy and others were randomized to ADT + abiraterone/prednisone. It was comforting to know that whether men received either chemotherapy with docetaxel for 6 cycles or abiraterone and prednisone continuously for at least 2 years that they lived significantly longer compared to men receiving the old standard of ADT alone.

The interesting comparison presented at ESMO 2017 was that men who took abiraterone had longer time to cancer progression (mostly assessed by rising PSA). There were similar overall survival outcomes with either initial treatment strategy. As expected, the types of side effects were different depending upon the type of treatment, but severe toxicity was equally common with either type of treatment.

For the first time, “patient reported outcomes” assessing symptoms and quality of life on the LATITUDE study (including men with high-risk metastatic disease treated with ADT + abiraterone/prednisone or ADT + placebos) were presented. In addition to living significantly longer and having major delays in cancer growth, men taking ADT + abiraterone/prednisone had better pain control and were less likely to have reductions in quality of life, particularly after the initial 4 months on treatment.

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a protein that is on the cell surface of most prostate cancers and can be used as a treatment target since it is not present many other places in the body. At Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian, we have been targeting this protein with radioactive particles for more than a decade. Other institutions have also more recently begun using this approach. Over the past several years, there have been many patients receiving this type of therapy in Europe who may have benefitted from this treatment, but no real prospective clinical trials have been performed. Australian researchers presented data at ESMO in which they enrolled and treated 30 men whose tumors “lit up” on PSMA-PET scans with 177Lu-PSMA-617 in a clinical trial. Patients received up to 4 cycles of therapy. Most patients experienced a significant decrease in PSA, some had tumors shrink on scans, and severe side effects were limited.

We have previously published on the (initially) surprisingly high frequency of inherited “germline” alterations in men with advanced prostate cancer. A Spanish group performed a prospective study of 419 men and found that about 9% had alterations in genes that affect the body’s ability to repair damaged DNA. Among the 6.2% with the most common alterations – BRCA2, ATM, and BRCA1  — overall survival was not significantly shorter compared to men without these genetic mutations. However, when examining just the most common BRCA2 gene, men did not live as long. Whether or not these inherited DNA alterations were present, men could respond to approved therapeutic agents, so if clinical trials are not available men should be encouraged to take standard hormonal or chemotherapy.

AACR 2017

AACR 2017April brings more than just showers – the month kicks off with a very important cancer research conference. Tomorrow we are headed to Washington, DC for the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) annual meeting held April 1-5, 2017.

Our team will be joining approximately 20,000 cancer researchers from across the country and around the world for this important meeting. Several physicians and scientists from Weill Cornell Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian, and the Meyer Cancer Center again served on the scientific program committee, including our own Dr. Scott Tagawa.

We’re also proud that Dr. Bishoy Faltas was selected as an AACR NextGen Star, a competitive award that supports professional development and advancement for scientists who are early in their career. Dr. Faltas will be presenting important updates related to bladder cancer, and his NextGen Star talk will take place on Wednesday, April 5, and is titled Genomic dissection of the clonal evolution dynamics of chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma.

We have a lot to share at AACR 2017, so please check back frequently as we’ll be updating the blog regularly throughout the week.

Here are some additional highlights of what’s to come:

  • Updates regarding circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and the role of biomarkers in non-invasive diagnostics and treatments
  • How organoids may help us better treat neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC)
  • The different types of radiation used to treat prostate cancer and how we’re targeting PSMA – a marker on the surface of most prostate cancer cells – with radioimmunotherapy to kill cancer cells
  • The latest updates in bladder cancer research, including updates in genomics and targeting molecular pathways